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作为上海高校高峰高原学科建设项目上海音乐学院双簧管新型专业教学团队2017大师课系列活动之一:法国里昂国立高等音乐舞蹈学院双簧管教授Jérôme Guichard于10月23日-28日受邀前来上海音乐学院,为我院的双簧管专业的师生带来了一场生动丰富的大师课和小型独奏音乐会。

        Jérôme Guichard教授作为法国当今最著名的双簧管教育家之一,对于双簧管的演奏与教学有着独到的见解和教学体系,此次共有17位同学有幸得到了这次难得的大师课上课机会,也给所有同学及院外同仁们带来了很多的期盼。


        在大师课上,Jérôme Guichard教授主要指出了同学们在音准、音色、演奏姿势、音乐等几方面的问题,他指出:在演奏巴洛克时期的作品中,如Telemann,通奏低音要非常独特鲜明,让旋律性乐器创造出和声效果。Jérôme Guichard教授还指出演奏者需要非常熟悉钢琴谱,也可以尝试演奏钢琴谱。乐句的方向是每首曲子的重点,尤其是在同音,或是有相同音型时,要有层层递进的感觉。除了方向,节奏也非常重要,像W. A. Mozart及P. Sancan这样的作品,都需要有非常精准的节奏。演奏作品时要充满想象力,对色彩的掌控要得心应手,音准也尤为重要。像F. Poulenc: Sonata中,两种截然不同的色彩像是信教徒与邪教徒,柔和的旋律是在向上帝祷告,而激烈、急促的旋律则是代表着邪恶。很多同学在演奏乐曲时,不注重休止符,但Jérôme Guichard教授反复强调,休止符也是音乐的一部分,包括身体动作同样也要跟乐句相匹配,演奏时要尊重乐谱的标记,学生在学校学习期间注重原谱再现比二度创作更重要。

在演奏类似歌剧的作品时,要模仿人声,特别是在有八度大跳的时候,高音部分不能用嘴挤哨片。有时我们要模仿小提琴,而不是仅仅在吹双簧管。因为小提琴在演奏时所有的动作、运动都是可观的,不像双簧管的气息、口腔都在内部,想象小提琴是如何运弓、震动,会更加直观一些。在一些曲子中,跟钢琴合作与跟乐队合作是有很大不同的,要用不同的控制方法与乐队或钢琴配合演奏。


演奏姿势在演奏中也尤为重要,不论是台下观众的观感,还是演奏的状态,都应将身体放松,抬头、不驼背、不耸肩。Jérôme Guichard教授说,若是想要有好的音质与音色,就需要花大量时间练习基本功,同时也需要一个好发音、上高音下低音畅通无阻的哨片。在演奏时,不能总是想着自己在练琴,只是吹给自己听,而是要把音乐传递出去,去感染别人。就像R. Strauss: Concerto in D major,是十分气派、澎湃的,想象自己身处宇宙空间中,自身是渺小的,但音乐是宽广的。

Jérôme Guichard教授建议我们在练习技术片段时,可以抽出难点,打乱原本的节奏,利用符点、正向反向练习。在下行的快速音阶练习上,可以一个一个音叠加练习,先是两个音,之后三个音、四个音……练熟下行之后可以反向做同样的练习。

 

第二天的大师课后,Jérôme Guichard教授谈了谈应该如何练习基本功。Jérôme Guichard教授自己在每天开始乐曲的练习前,会练习两个部分:一是声音,二是手指。Jérôme Guichard教授说,音有三样特性:音质、音准与一致性。要做到这三样,可以用60一拍的速度练习音阶与琶音,Jérôme Guichard教授认为这是最佳速度,因为它接近人心跳的速度。并且他建议背谱练习Ferling48首练习曲的慢板,因为慢板乐段没有任何技术困难,是可以视谱的难度,只有需要背出来才会认真练习起到效果。同样,虽然Singer是一本手指练习,但把Singer的速度放慢,也可以作为练习音色音质的教材。在音色练习之后,进入第二部分的技巧练习,这部分同样也是练习音阶,尝试用不同的方式来练习,连音、吐音、断音、琶音、正向反向三度……并且在练习音阶时,用不同的力度,弱起渐强、弱起减轻……Jérôme Guichard教授希望我们能够自如的掌控自己的乐器,不要成为乐器的奴隶,增加自己的灵活性,要像一盒彩色铅笔,掌握许许多多不同的色彩,在需要的时候可以轻松地做到自己想要表现的颜色。

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